The sawfly genus Pristiphora, with about 240 species, is the second largest in the subfamily Nematinae (Tenthredinidae). The genus has a complicated taxonomic history. Frequent changes in species names and the lack of reliable, comprehensive identification keys have hitherto hampered research. In this work we review the North-West Palaearctic species using morphological and genetic data, including altogether 90 species. Two species are described as new and 29 new synonymies proposed. As a result, the number of West Palaearctic species is reduced from 120 to 107. We provide identification keys (a dichotomous and a multi-choice electronic key) that should enable a more reliable identification of most North-West Palaearctic species than was previously possible. Remarkably, genetic data based on mitochondrial DNA proved to be unreliable for identifying roughly half of the species. Much more successful was an approach based on analysis of nuclear DNA. This review is part of an ongoing project, funded by the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative, to improve the taxonomic understanding of nematine sawflies in Fennoscandia and adjacent territories.
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